R' Shlomo ben R' Meir Noson Halberstam, the first Bobover Rebbe (1905)
R' Yisroel ben R' Moshe Najara, talmid of Arizal, wrote the famous Friday night song, Koh Ribbon Olam. Wrote sefer Lekach Tov. (There seems to be some confusion between him and his father, who I listed yesterday. I'm not sure whose yahrzeit it really is and what date)
R' Shmuel ben R' Yechiel of Cologne HY"D (1096) He was killed by the crusaders.
R' Avrohom Twersky, the Trisker Magid (1889) He wrote Magen Avrohom and was the son of R' Mordechai of Chernobyl.
R' Yissachar Dov Illowy (1814-1871) one of the great Rabbonim who came to the USA in the 1800's. See here for his bio.
R' Yaakov HaLevi Sapir, Rov in Saana, Yemen, author of Even Sapir
R' Yosef Chaim Shneur ben R' Ahron Kotler, Lakewood Rosh Yeshiva(1982)
R' Menachem Mendel ben R' Levi Yitzchok Schneerson (1994), the Seventh Lubavitcher Rebbe. He was the son-in-law of the previous Lubavitcher Rebbe, R' Yosef Yitzchok Schneerson. They are buried right next to each other in Queens, NY, minutes away from JFK Airport. These are probably the most visited kevarim outside of Eretz Yisroel and are accessible 24 hours a day. There is a visitor's center adjacent to the Ohel with a Shul and place for people to sit and have refreshments. See here for information and directions. For those that live too far away you can send a kvitel through their website.
Rabbeinu Tam, R' Yaakov ben Meir (1100-1171)
R' Pinchos Halevi Horowitz of Frankfurt (1730-1805) ben R' Tzvi Hirsch of Chortkov. One of the great talmidim of the Magid of Mezrich, together with his brother, the Rebbe Reb Shmelke of Nikolsberg. He wrote Sefer Haflah, Sefer Hamkeneh and Panim Yofos and was the Rebbe of the Chasam Sofer.
R' Yisroel Ezriel Hildesheimer (1820-1899), Rov in Germany, talmid of the Aruch La'ner
R' Eliyahu Lupas (1938), Rov in Yeshiva Porat Yosef, wrote Sefer Imrei Pi and Ben Avichayal
R' Chaim Moshe Mandel, mekubal in Bnei Brak (1996)
R' Chaim De la Rosa (1786), Talmid of the Rashash and author of Toras Chochom
R' Moshe ben R' Yaakov Shimshon of Kosov (1855 - 1925) author of Leket Ani
R' Shmuel Majar (1848) Av Beis Din in Yerushalayim and Rosh Yeshiva of Chasidei Beis El.
R' Yisrael Yaakov Algazi (1756) Great Mekubal who lived in Turkey and Eretz Yisrael. He was the Rosh Yeshivah of Neveh Sholom Bris Avrohom and Beis El and was Rov of Yerushalyim
R' Boruch Frankel-Tumim (1828), author of Boruch Taam, father-in-law of R' Chaim of Sanz
R' Gedalya Schorr (1979), Rosh Yeshiva in Torah Vodaas, author of Ohr Gedalyahu
R' Simcha Bunim Alter of Ger, the Lev Simcha (1992) son of R' Avrohom Mordechai, the Imrei Emes. Became Rebbe after his brother, the Beis Yisroel, passed away.
R' Shlomo ben R' Yehudah HaKohen (1827) Great Mekubal who wrote Yafeh Sha'ah
R' Meir ben R' Eliezer Horowitz of Dzikov (1877) Imrei Noam
R' Eliyahu Manni (1899) Great Mekubal who was Rov of Chevron and wrote Zichronos Eliyahu
R' Dovid Lifshitz (1993), Suvalker Rov
R' Yosef Shlomo Dayan (1985) Talmid of R' Mordechai Sharabi
R' Zalman Sorotzkin (1966) Lutzker Rov, wrote Oznaim L'Torah
R' Moshe Chevroni (1975), Rosh Yeshiva of Chevron Yeshiva, Talmid of the Chofetz Chaim and wrote Masaas Moshe.
R' Eliezer of Neustadt ben R' Tzvi Halevi Horowitz (1843) grandson of the Chozeh of Lublin
R' Yaakov ben R' Asher, Baal HaTurim (1270-1340) son of the Rosh
R' Eliyahu Yosef ben R' Aryeh Leib Rivlin (1805-1865) Taught Chabad Chassidus in Yerushalayim, wrote Ohalei Yosef
R' Aryeh Leib ben R' Mordechai Halevi Epstein (1775), author of Hapardes
R' Chaim HaCohen Rappaport, Rov of Lvov
R' Mordechai of Kremnitz (1820) ben R' Yechiel Michel of Zlotchov
R' Moshe ben R' Naftoli Hirsch Rivkash (1671), the author of Be'er Hagolah on Shulchan Aruch
R' Chanoch Henoch Dov ben Elazer Rubin (1920), Sassover Rebbe of London
R' Yosef ben R' Moshe Trani, Maharit (1639)
R' Mordechai Attiah (1978) Great Sephardic Rosh Yeshiva in Yerushalyim
R' Yaakov Yitzchok ben Yehudah Leib HaLevi Ruderman (1987) Founder and Rosh Yeshiva of Ner Yisroel of Baltimore, talmid of the Alter of Slabodka
R' Yitzchok Issac Rosenbaum, Zutchka Rebbe (2000) son of R' Isamar of Nadvorna
R' Chaim ben R' Moshe Ibn Atar, the Ohr HaChaim HaKodosh (1743)
R' Aryeh Leib ben R' Asher Ginzberg, the Shagas Aryeh (1695-1785) One of the greatest minds of his time. The Vilna Gaon said that the Shagas Aryeh was greater than him in nigleh, but not in nistar.
R' Amram Blau, head of Neturei Karta in Yerushalayim (1974) This "Neturei Karta" is not to be confused the one in the news recently. The shita of the real "Neturei Karta" was basically the same as that of the Satmar Rebbe. He fought against the desecration of Shabbos in Eretz Yisroel and was respected by the Chazon Ish and many other gedolim of the time. His brother was R' Moshe Blau of Agudas Yisroel.
Chur, son of Kalev and Miriam (1309 B.C.E.) Was killed trying to prevent the making of the Eigel
R' Yitzchok Leonini Azulai, grandson of the Chida
R' Aharon Yosef Bakst, Rav of Shavel, HY"D(1941)
R' Avrohom Yehoshua Heschel ben R' Yitzchok Meir, Kapitchnitzer Rebbe (1967)
R' Yehuda ben R' Asher, son of the Rosh
R' Shmuel Yaakov Weinberg, Rosh Yeshiva of Ner Yisroel (1999)
R' Chaim Meir Yechiel ben R' Dov Beirish Shapiro (2007) Naroler Rov who passed away just shy of his 100th birthday
R' Yitzchok Issac ben R' Yoel Leib Halevi Herzog (1959), Chief Rabbi of Ireland and Eretz Yisroel, wrote Heichal Yitzchok
R' Eliezer Yehuda ben R' Nosson Tzvi Finkel, Rosh Yeshiva of Mir (1965) His father was the Alter of Slabodka.
R' Yona Stenzel, initiator of Halacha and Mishnah Yomi
R' Bentzion Abba Shaul ben R' Eliyahu (1998), Rosh Yeshiva of Porat Yosef, Great Sephardic tzadik who was recognized as one one of the greatest halachic authorites of his time.
R' Nosson Nota Hanover HY"D (1683) ben R' Moshe was a talmid of the Maharshal and author of Yaven Metzula and Shaarei Tzion, a very popular kabalistic sefer of tefilos and minhagim. He was killed by a stray bullet.
R' Avrohom Yitzchak Bloch HY"D ben R' Yosef Leib, Telzer Rosh Yeshiva (1941) Killed by the Nazis y's
R' Avrohom Chaim Noeh (1954) was one of the leading poskim in Eretz Yisroel. His "shiurim" for units of measure are among the most well known, even by those that don't use them. He is the author of Ketzos HaShulchon, Shiurei Torah and Gesher HaChaim.
R' Chaim Shaul Karelitz (2001), nephew of the Chazon Ish, Mashgiach Ruchni of Yeshiva Beis Meir and Talmud Torah Tashbar
R' Shlomo Machlama, author of Merkaves HaMisheneh on Rambam
R' Avrohom Mattisyahu ben R' Menachem Nochum Friedman of Shtefanesht (1933)
R' Shlomo HaLevi of Karlin HY"D (1792) ben R'Meir was a talmid of the Magid of Mezritch and R' Ahron HaGadol of Karlin, who he succeeded as Rebbe. After his passing R' Ahron HaGadol's son, Reb Asher, became Rebbe.
R' Avrohom Grodzinksi HY"D (1942), Mashgiach Ruchni of the Slabodka Yeshiva
R' Levi Yitzchok ben R' Avrohom Noach Bender (1989) was a talmid of R' Avrohom Chazan and was one of the great Breslov leaders of his time. See here for more and links at the bottom of the page to fascinating excerpts from his sefer.
R' Moshe ben R' Yaakov Cordovero, the Ramak (1570) was one of the most famous mekubalim. He studied nigleh under R' Yosef Caro and kabala under his brother-in-law, R' Shlomo Alkabetz. He wrote several seforim, including Pardes Rimonim and Tomer Devorah. The Satmar Rebbe had a kabala from the Divrei Chaim of Sanz that the sefer Tomer Devorah is a segula for the "known disease" – may Hashem save us, and if one isn't able to learn it himself, he should have someone read it in front of him. (It is available in English translation)
R' Gedalia Ahron ben R' Elazar Mordechai Kenig (1980), one of the leaders of Breslov, was a talmid muvhak of R' Avrohom Sternhartz, who encouraged him to establish Kiryat Breslov in Tzefas. His son, R' Elazar Mordechai Shlita, is the current leader of the community. R' Gedalia wrote Chayei Nefesh, on R' Chaim Volozhiner's Nefesh HaChaim, proving that there is no argument between Chassidim and Misnagdim on the principles and foundations of Yidishkeit, as they are beyond dispute. Parts have been translated into English by Rabbis Dovid Sears and Dovid Zeitlin, of The Breslov Center, and are available for download (PDF) - Part 1 and Part 2. They are quite fascinating and explain a lot.
R' Yechezkel Katzenellenbogen, the Knesses Yechezkel (1749)
R' Shaul Moshe Zilberman, the Rov of Viereshov, author of Pardes Shaul
R' Yaakov Yosef ben R' Dov (1902), the first and only Chief Rabbi of New York. He was a talmid of the Volozhiner Yeshiva and was known as "Reb Yaakov Charif" because of his sharp mind. He is buried in Queens, NY at Union Field Cemetery. Large crowds go to daven there on the yartzeit, and the cemetery opens earlier and closes later on the yartzeit. The Satmar Rebbe encouraged people to go to his kever. People also go there throughout the year to daven for yeshuos. See here for more on this great leader, who gave his life for Yiddishkeit in the late 19th century.
R' Meir HaLevi of Apta ben R' Shmuel (1827), author of Ohr LaShomayim. He was the Rov of Apta after the Ohev Yisroel, who moved to Mezibuz, after sensing that R' Meir was supposed to become Rov of Apta. He was a talmid muvhak of the Chozeh of Lublin. One of his most famous talmidim is the Tiferes Shlomo of Radomsk.
R' Ahron Brachya of Modina, author of Maavar Yabok
R' Shmuel Rozovsky, Rosh Yeshiva in Ponovezh
R' Elazar of Lizhensk (1806) was the oldest son of the Rebbe Reb Elimelech of Lizensk. He put together his father's sefer, Noam Elimelech, which has several letters of R' Elazar in the back. His sons were R' Naftali of Lizensk and R' Mendel Ber of Pshevorsk and his son-in-law was R' Chaim Meir Yechiel Shapira of Moglenitz.
R' Moshe ben R' Tzvi Hirsch Teitelbaum of Uhel (1841), author of Yismach Moshe, was a talmid of the Chozeh of Lublin. He said he remembers himself in a previous gilgul in Mitzraim and could even describe what the house that he stayed in looked like. He said that when the machlokes of Korach took place he didn't take any sides; he stayed in his tent until the machlokes ended and only then came out, when it was determined who was correct. R' Meshulam Igra said on him: "Moshe Emes v'Toraso Emes". The Sighet and Satmar dynasties descend from him.
R' Nachman ben R' Chaim Aryeh HaKohen Kahana (1904) was the Av Beis Din of Spinka. He was the son-in-law of the first Spinka Rebbe, the Imrei Yosef. He wrote sefer Orchos Chaim on Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim.
R' Yaakov Shaul Elishar (1906) Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Eretz Yisroel, the Givat Shaul neighborhood in Yerushalayim is named after him
R' Chaim Friedlander (1986), Mashgiach in Ponovezh (1986) author of Sifsei Chaim