To sum up: When people do not perceive their jobs to deliver fun on regular basis, they are probably going to jump ship soon. Now, it´s clear that a job can´t be fun all the time. It´s called work, after all. But my data suggests that top managers ...

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Lack of Fun at Work Kills Motivation

By Nico Rose

By Nico Rose -

When was the last time you really had a lot fun at work? If you can´t quite remember, you AND your employer might be in big trouble.

Joy at work

“What kills your joy at work?” I asked some 900 people, most of them middle managers of German companies, for a survey in August 2019. I wanted to better understand which factors out of a list of 30 known stressors at work bother workers to a greater extent. Moreover, I calculated which of these unwanted working conditions are connected to relevant Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), such as unwillingness to recommend one´s employer to other people or the current prevalence of turnover intentions.

Not Enough Resources and Career Opportunities

Across the entire sample, participants complained first and foremost about a lack of resources (budget, staff) in light of their current tasks and responsibilities. This is quite understandable keeping in mind most of the participants work in challenging business-minded environments. For-profit organizations are supposed to run their business to the highest degree of efficiency. Notwithstanding, senior managers should bear in mind excessive austerity can harm an organization´s culture in the long run, sparking feelings of resentment between coworkers or entire departments.

Next, participants complain about a lack of attractive career opportunities within their organizations. Keeping in mind the sample, this makes a lot of sense: A considerable fraction of the sample is in their mid-thirties. Accordingly, they are still in their career-building phase. The perceived lack of opportunities could be an accurate evaluation of their current situation. Most large German companies aren’t growing strongly at this point in time, a circumstance that is known to slow down career progression for aspiring leaders. Yet, my personal experience as a senior human resources leader also tells me this finding might be explained by these aspiring leaders lacking accurate information. Especially in large, diversified corporations, in the absence of a unified career information system such as an internal job board, many theoretically available career options might stay hidden from potential internal applicants.

A Well-known Pain Point: Leadership Quality

I found that stressors ranked three to five can be attributed to the behavior of respondents´ direct supervisors. Many participants report that they lack trust in their organizations´ top management. Yet, most members of an organization are not directly exposed to top management on a regular basis. Therefore, top managers´ image is first and foremost constructed via exposure to internal media, and maybe even more via word of mouth. The image of top managers in the minds of most staff members is by and large shaped by what mid-level supervisors think and say about them.

Leader looking over a shoulder


Next we find two old acquaintances, factors well-known for decades, but obviously hard to ameliorate: A sizable part of the sample complains about a lack of relevant feedback. Somewhat of a surprise was that respondents miss constructive criticism providing opportunities for learning even more than praise and recognition. This holds especially true for the female participants in my sample. People need their strokes (using a wording from transactional analysis), but they also want to be challenged, and they want to grow their knowledge and their competence.

Not until the sixth spot did I find some concerns about money. Some people are regularly bothered by a (perceived) lack of an adequate salary, and even less so, some are worried about their prospects for salary development.

It´s Annoying, But Is It Relevant?

The fact that a stressor is perceived to occur frequently does not necessarily imply that it is also severe in its qualitative consequences. It is perfectly possible for a source of stress to occur on a regular basis and precisely because of its normality, most workers psychologically devalue its significance because they have accepted it as a given or because they have learned to cope over time. By way of example, over the course of several years, most managers in large organizations learn to create decent results even with scarce resources. In my former job as VP at Bertelsmann, we called this “working with magic money.” Managers often found ways to get things done without relying on formal budgets.

On the other hand, there might be stressors that do not occur on a regular basis, but when they do, they have severe consequences for an employee´s motivation, engagement, and subsequent behavior. To shed more light on these assumed connections, I assessed the importance of the 30 stressors as measured in my study for several critical outcomes by means of linear regression analysis, in particular participants willingness to recommend their jobs, their supervisors, and their employer as a whole to a good friend or relative. An additional outcome was respondents´ current turnover intentions.

Life Is (Not) a Walk in the Park

At this point, a stressor became salient that made an unimpressive rank number 18 in absolute terms: fun, or, more precisely: a lack of fun, A regression analysis suggests that a perceived lack of fun is the second-most important driver of turnover intentions, after number 1, lack of career opportunities. Moreover, the fun factor is the:

  • most important driver of participants´ willingness to recommend their job
  • second-most important driver of participants´ willingness to recommend their employer
  • third-most important driver of participants´ willingness to recommend their supervisor

To sum up: When people do not perceive their jobs to deliver fun on regular basis, they are probably going to jump ship soon. Now, it´s clear that a job can´t be fun all the time. It´s called work, after all. But my data suggests that top managers and human resources professionals should not take this seemingly light factor too lightly.

What Drives Fun at Work?

Given that having fun at work is such a serious matter – an interesting follow-up question is: What are the drivers of perceived fun at work? In order to clarify this, I ran another linear regression; this time, using (lack of) fun as the target variable. These are the three most important drivers of fun at work:

Passion Led Us Here

  • strength orientation
  • meaning in work
  • working atmosphere among colleagues

The last-mentioned point is self-explanatory: When someone is regularly irritated by their coworkers or simply isn’t able to connect, fun will go overboard. Interestingly enough, an in-depth analysis shows that this factor is also attributed to the leadership quality of participants´ supervisors. Looking at the second factor, there´s an intriguing finding: The perception of (a lack of) meaning and (a lack of) fun at work seem to be deeply intertwined. Experiences that are meaningful also carry a lot of fun, and vice-versa. This is interesting because these two dimensions (called hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in the research literature) are often depicted as being separate entities, whereas, in fact, they are probably connected on a deeper level.

Yet, in my analysis, the most important driver of workplace fun is an environment that caters to peoples´ strengths. When employees get to work on tasks that play to their strengths for the greater part of the day, they will also get more fun out of their jobs. Managers who aim to create a working environment that enhances followers´ experience of fun (and hence, meaning), need to really, really get to know their people. They have to understand what makes them tick in order to help them to develop their authentic (and fun-loving) working selves.


Bailey, C., & Madden, A. (2016). What makes work meaningful or meaningless. MIT Sloan Management Review.

Lips-Wiersma, M., & Wright, S. (2012). Measuring the meaning of meaningful work: Development and validation of the comprehensive meaningful work scale (CMWS). Group & Organization Management, 37(5), 655-685. DOI: 10.1177/1059601112461578

Steger, M. F. (2017). Creating meaning and purpose at work. (2017). In L. G. Oades, M. F. Steger, A. Delle Fave, & J. Passmore (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Positivity and Strengths-Based Approaches at Work (pp. 60-81). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.

Strack, R., Booker, M., Kovács-Ondrejkovic, O., Antebi, P., & Welch, D. (2018). Decoding global talent 2018. Featured Insights.

Image Credits
Joy at work Photo by Patrick Tomasso on Unsplash
Leadership Photo by Mimi Thian on Unsplash
Passion Led us here Photo by Ian Schneider on Unsplash

This article first appeared on Positive Psychology News. To see the original article, click here. To comment on this article, click here.

Dr. Nico Rose (MAPP '14) is a professor for organizational psychology at International School of Management (ISM) in Dortmund, Germany. He worked for Bertelsmann, Europe's largest media corporation from 2010 to 2018, most recently as Vice President Employer Branding & Talent Acquisition. For several years, he published Mappalicious, the German side of positive psychology. His book, Arbeit besser machen, was published in 2019. Nico's articles can be found here.


Stress: Your Mindset Makes a Difference

By Marie-Josée Shaar

By Marie-Josée Shaar -

Today is National First Responders Day, and to celebrate the occasion, I’d like to help you figure out how to handle stress like a true hero.

Fireman with hose

First Responder in Action

First Responders face stress daily, and so over time, have learned to view stress as enhancing their capabilities. Most of us, on the other hand, are conditioned to view stress as debilitating. Who’s right? Is stress enhancing or debilitating? Actually, both perceptions can be equally valid, but our attitude towards these intense feelings affects how we navigate stressful events.

Our culture normalizes stress, viewing it as a minor side effect of leading a productive life. But our bodies disagree. Those who are stressed tend to run too high on cortisol, a hormone known to make us feel impatient and irritable. So we look for “treats” to mitigate the negative vibes, and sure enough, given that cortisol also causes high-sugar, high-fat, high-salt food cravings, we can’t resist that bag of chips or that extra sweet coffee in the mid-afternoon. To complete that ugly picture, cortisol is also known to cause insomnia, so we don’t get quite enough sleep, which keeps our cortisol levels high so that we repeat the whole cycle all over again the next day. With poorer sleep, food, and mood behaviors, our cardiovascular and overall health and productivity suffer.

All these negative consequences of stress seem to favor the view that stress is debilitating. But what if we could alter our cortisol response to stress? Turns out, that’s a real possibility.

In a first research experiment, Crum, Salovey and Achor at Yale University discovered that people can perceive stress as either enhancing or as debilitating. They then found in a follow-up study that this perception can be altered based on the information that people receive. Participants were sent three short videos that provided credible information emphasizing either a “stress is enhancing” or “stress is debilitating” mindset. Results showed that participants’ beliefs about stress were altered based on the information they had viewed. In the third and final study of that series, Crum and team found that a stress-is-enhancing mindset is related to more adaptive cortisol responses when under high stress.

These three studies suggest that our stress mindset is malleable and that adopting a stress-is-enhancing mindset can help us handle the pressures that come our way.

I’ve created my own one-minute clip to help you, your peers, clients and loved ones interpret stress more positively, just as first responders do.


View on Youtube

Now of course, a caveat: having a positive response to stress is in no way a license to impose further pressure on ourselves and others. It is solely a tool to help us face the music a bit more gracefully. 😉



Crum, A.J., Salovey, P. & Achor, S. (2013). Rethinking stress: The role of mindsets in determining the stress response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 104 (4), 716–733.

McGonigal, K. (2016). The Upside of Stress: Why Stress Is Good for You, and How to Get Good at It. New York: Penguin Random House.

Shaar, M.-J. (2014). Health habits work better together: Evidence from the Trans-theoretical Model. Positive Psychology News.

Shaar, M.-J. & Britton, K. (2011). Smarts and Stamina: The Busy Person’s Guide to Optimal Health and Performance. Philadelphia, PA: Positive Psychology Press.

Worline, M. & Dutton, J. (2017). Awakening Compassion at Work: The Quiet Power That Elevates People and Organizations. San Francisco: Berrett Kohler Publishers.

Picture credit:
Fireman operating hose Photo by Greg Leaman on Unsplash

This article first appeared on Positive Psychology News. To see the original article, click here. To comment on this article, click here.

Marie-Josée (MJ) Salvas Shaar, MAPP '07, CPT, has studied, tested, coached, and taught smart health habits for over 13 years. Combining positive psychology with fitness and nutrition, she created a coaching method that builds better sleep, food, mood, and exercise habits, as described in her book, Smarts and Stamina: The Busy Person's Guide to Optimal Health and Performance, which includes 50 practical health-building activities. Today MJ gives keynotes for corporate wellness programs and offers continuing education for wellness professionals, who can license her Smarts and Stamina Online program. Full bio. MJ's articles are here.


Protect Yourself and Friends From the New LSD: Loneliness, Stress, Depression

By Marie-Josée Shaar

By Marie-Josée Shaar -

I was shocked when I read that US workplaces may be responsible for 120,000 excess deaths per year, making the workplace the 5th leading cause of death in the country. Can you believe it?

Loneliness, Stress, and Depression: What the Problem Looks Like

Statistics show the impact of loneliness, stress, and depression (which I lovingly refer to as LSD because together they are as severe as the drug) in American workplaces. More than 80% of workers admit feeling stressed, 40% admit feeling lonely, and another 9.5% report depression. These stats are all the more concerning given that they are what people willingly admit to, and sometimes it’s just easier to pretend you don’t care than to admit it’s killing you. We also know that these conditions tend to be recurring, meaning that if you’ve been there once, your risk of finding yourself in that situation a second time increases. These numbers are likely to swell, since younger generations are more stressed than their elders.

To make things worse, LSD impacts not only the mental and emotional health of its victims, but also their physical health. I’ve seen numerous doctors cite that loneliness is as damaging to our health as smoking 15 cigarettes per day. Unmanaged stress increases the risk of heart disease by 40%, of heart attack by 25% and of stroke by 50%. Work stress specifically is responsible for 10% of strokes. People with depression are four times as likely to have a heart attack than those who don’t have a history of the illness. The World Health Organization deems depression to be the leading cause of disability around the world.

That’s why many public health authorities now call LSD one of the most urgent social crises of our time.

If we could add up all the losses each year in the US alone due to LSD and invest it into something more productive, we could give roughly $28,000 to each veteran, each homeless person, each new cancer patient, and each single parent in the country. Wouldn’t that be awesome?

In honor of World Heart Day

For World Heart Day, Share the News

As we approach World Heart Day (September 29th), I want to encourage you to share the news above, as a way to build greater awareness. We can’t fix a problem before admitting that we have one. To help you do so, I just launched a 90-second video summarizing some of the most concerning stress-related statistics within the context of a regular guy doing a regular job, having a not-so-regular day where his stress gets the better of him. The video appears at the bottom of this article. Please watch and share it.

Now what do we do about it?

OK, enough about the problem. Now let’s move on to solutions. Wellness and HR professionals of all kinds, concerned peers and positive psychology enthusiasts have a duty to do our part in addressing the issue. Sure, a lot of the stress our peers feel is due to factors far beyond our control, but rather than stopping ourselves by contemplating what we can’t do, I’d like to invite us to take charge of what we can do.

Hundreds of studies tell us things that would help. Here are some suggestions almost anyone can apply very easily, even on a budget. I often describe those in my keynotes and workshops, and participants have found them to be really helpful. I hope you do, too!

  • Interactions at Work

    Reality Check

    Draw a table on which the X-axis represents your closest work peers, and the Y-axis represents positivity-inducing behaviors. For example, you could ask about their reality, offer gratitude, offer support, promote career development. As the week progresses, give yourself one checkmark each time you perform one of these behaviors with one individual. At the end of each week, take note of which behaviors you’ve performed most consistently, and which ones you may have forgotten. Notice also which individuals have received more positivity, and ask yourself if those who weren’t frequent beneficiaries need more attention or support.

  • Do I Know You?

    Draw a table on which the X-axis represents your closest work peers and the Y-axis represents things we typically know about our close friends. For example, are they married, do they have children, spouse name, children’s names and ages, pet name and kind, siblings’ names and ages, parents’ names and whether they are still alive, birthday, anniversary, favorite holiday, do they go to church, do they have a favorite charity/cause? Try to fill in as many boxes on the grid as possible each week. This activity serves to create more meaningful conversations and interactions with our peers.

  • Click to see larger text.

    Contribution Attestation (team activity)

    Provide each member of your team with one card for each other member of the team. Thus, for a team of 10 people, each team member gets 9 cards. Each card is marked with the name of another team member. Ask each participant to complete the following two statements on each card: “What I most appreciate/value about you/your contribution to our team is…” and “Here’s what I know you can do to help our team become extraordinary:” Distribute each card to the appropriate team member, and ask them to write a paragraph summarizing what they learned, and how they plan to maintain self-accountability to deliver their best contribution on a consistent basis. (Adapted from Kim Cameron’s book, Practicing Positive Leadership.)

  • Active Constructive Responding

    When someone shares difficult news with us, we often give that person our undivided attention, empathy, and support. But when they share good news, we tend to brush them off with a simple “awesome, good for you, so glad to hear it!” Yet, research shows that how we respond to good news is an even better predictor of the long-term health of our relationship than how we respond to bad news. Of all the possible response styles, active constructive responding is clearly the best relationship builder.

Sometimes, when you are worried about a friend, a husband, a wife, a brother or a co-worker, it’s easier to send them a link to a video than to tell them what’s on your mind. If you know someone who’s working too hard and carrying a high level of stress, consider asking them to watch the 90-second video above as a helpful and kind warning. LSD can strike anyone, even you.


(View on Youtube or on Facebook.)



Cameron, K. (2013). Practicing Positive Leadership: Tools and Techniques That Create Extraordinary Results. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Gable, S., Gonzaga, G. C., & Strachman, A. (2006). Will You Be There for Me When Things Go Right? Supportive Responsesto Positive Event Disclosures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(5), 904-917.

Murthy, V. (2017). Work and the loneliness epidemic: Reducing isolation at work is good for business. Harvard Business Review.

Pfeffer, J. (2018). Dying for a Paycheck: How Modern Management Harms Employee Health and Company Performance―and What We Can Do About It. New York: Harper Business.

One Mind Initiative at Work (2018). The Cost of Depression in the Workplace – Part 1: The Research. Thrive Global.

Saad, L. (2017). Eight in ten Americans afflicted by stress. Gallup.

Schwabel, D. (2017). Vivek Murthy: How to solve the work loneliness epidemic: An interview. Forbes Online.

Worline, M. & Dutton, J. (2017). Awakening Compassion at Work: The Quiet Power That Elevates People and Organizations. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Picture Credits

Heart Photo by Alexandru Acea on Unsplash
Interactions at work photo by Priscilla Du Preez on Unsplash

This article first appeared on Positive Psychology News. To see the original article, click here. To comment on this article, click here.

Marie-Josée (MJ) Salvas Shaar, MAPP '07, CPT, has studied, tested, coached, and taught smart health habits for over 13 years. Combining positive psychology with fitness and nutrition, she created a coaching method that builds better sleep, food, mood, and exercise habits, as described in her book, Smarts and Stamina: The Busy Person's Guide to Optimal Health and Performance, which includes 50 practical health-building activities. Today MJ gives keynotes for corporate wellness programs and offers continuing education for wellness professionals, who can license her Smarts and Stamina Online program. Full bio. MJ's articles are here.


How to Grow Your Positive Psychology Business

By Margaret Greenberg and Senia Maymin

By Margaret Greenberg and Senia Maymin -

If you are a Positive Psychology News reader, then you likely not only have an interest in positive psychology, but you might also be growing a business that has to do with positive psychology.

Here we talk about how we have started working with large organizations in bringing positive psychology to them through coaching, workshops, and other content. We’d love to hear what methods you have tried to expand the reach of positive psychology.

Here are seven pieces of advice we have accumulated over the last thirteen years since graduating from the inaugural Masters of Applied Positive Psychology program at the University of Pennsylvania. We spoke in great depth about this advice recently during our Quarterly Learning Community for the graduates of our PROFIT FROM THE POSITIVE Certificate Program.

  1. Think big, but start small. Coaching engagements are a good way to introduce organizations to positive psychology concepts, frameworks, and tools. Whether it is using exercises like the Hope Letter, the Gratitude Letter, or identification of strengths, coaching individual leaders is an effective way to acquire new corporate clients.
  2. For seedling businesses

  3. Take a consultative approach. Help a potential client identify a pain point or solve a problem. Now that may not sound very much like positive psychology, but it is the way many business leaders think. Most see their role as solving problems, not necessarily envisioning something positive. Help them solve a pressing problem such as preparing employees for a large-scale change by introducing them to resilience and growth mindset training. Ask questions such as “What would happen over the next six months if you did nothing to address this issue?”
  4. Partner, don’t compete. We’ve had great success partnering with the internal Human Resources department to introduce the Shift Positive 360 process designed by Pete Berridge and Jen Ostrich. We have also helped HR departments redesign their performance review processes. This requires cultivating a robust network by being an active member of relevant virtual groups (think LinkedIn Groups) and associations (think SHRM or ICF).
  5. Pilot a program. Although positive psychology is a rapidly growing field, many businesses are still unfamiliar with it, and unfamiliarity breeds skepticism. If the leader is not ready to commit fully, suggest a pilot of a small team before introducing your work to the whole organization. People love pilots!
  6. Be persistent. It takes, on average, twelve to fifteen touchpoints before a client buys anything, including your services. Send emails with articles or fun ideas that are relevant to their business. Think content marketing. You can be a thought leader in this space. Pick-up the phone. Yes, don’t be afraid to actually talk to a client or leave a message. If you have exchanged mobile numbers, a text message can be effective, too.
  7. Work with an intact team. You may want to start at the top and cascade your work throughout a large organization, but starting with the sales or R&D team or a specific Employee Resource Group such as female professionals can be a highly effective way to get your foot in the door.
  8. Do a freebie. Introduce your content to the Learning & Development or Human Resources department or a professional organization such as the local chapter of the International Coach Federation. You will expand your network and expand their appetite to hire you.

What have you found to be an effective way to get your foot in the door at businesses large and small? Please let us know in the comments below.

NOTE: Our next article will address how to get a client to say “Yes.”

There are a few virtual seats left in the Fall 2019 PROFIT FROM THE POSITIVE Certificate Program in which we train coaches, managers, and HR professionals to deliver the 31 tools described in the Profit from the Positive book. LiveHappy rates this course among the top 12 positive psychology courses you can take online.

Readers of PPND receive 20% off registration. Use promo code PPND2019 on the Registration Page. REGISTRATION CLOSES AT MIDNIGHT ET ON WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 2.



Greenberg, M. & Maymin, S. (2013). Profit from the positive: Proven leadership strategies to boost productivity and transform your business.. McGraw-Hill.

Picture credit:
Seedling Photo by Stanislav Kondratiev on Unsplash

This article first appeared on Positive Psychology News. To see the original article, click here. To comment on this article, click here.

Margaret Greenberg and Senia Maymin are the authors of the book Profit From the Positive. Articles written jointly by Margaret and Senia are here.

Margaret Greenberg, MAPP '06, founded The Greenberg Group, an organizational effectiveness consulting practice, in 1997. Margaret specializes in coaching executives and their teams using a strengths-based approach. Full bio. Her solo articles are here.

Senia Maymin, MAPP '06 is an executive coach to entrepreneurs and CEOs. Her PhD is in organizational behavior from the Stanford Graduate School of Business. Full bio. Her solo articles are here, and her articles with Kathryn Britton are here.


Be a Project Motivator

By Adrienne Keane

By Adrienne Keane -

“As any good carpenter will tell you, the best tools do not build the house.”

Project work is done by people, and influencing without authority presents one of the biggest challenges project managers and team leaders face. In her book, Be a Project Motivator: Unlock the Secrets of Strengths-Based Project Management, Ruth Pearce shares practical, scientifically-bounded approaches to revealing the greatest potential of the project manager, project team, and stakeholders.

Looking up at strength

Pearce masterfully illustrates her building blocks of strengths-based project management through the journey of Maggie, a project manager who has been assigned to lead a troubled project team that has been working together for some time.

The story illustrates how Maggie introduces and uses character strengths to get to know the team, build team trust and psychological safety, and co-create a vision with the team. Using techniques such as the VIA strengths assessment, strengths-spotting, and team profiling, Maggie weaves the language of appreciation and character strengths into day-to-day practices and problem solving of the team. Team members use the strengths language to help each other grow. Over time, these new ways of working lead to better communication, higher engagement, and greater job satisfaction.

I’ve sometimes struggled with how to introduce and apply character strengths in a corporate setting. This book makes the case for why this is important and provides a practical approach illustrated with real-life stories. Pearce shows how to overcome objections and engage the team, first in understanding strengths in themselves, then seeing strengths in others, then in building strengths together. In addition to the happy path, she addresses where strengths can go wrong through underuse and overuse.

Story AND Reference Guide

Ruth Pearce, PMP

The book is structured in a way that makes it useful as a reference guide. Ruth provides strategies and questions for reflection at the beginning of each chapter to help make the concepts stick. The book culminates with a customizable day-by-day implementation plan that ties everything together to put your strengths-based project management learnings into practice.

As an agile coach, I will use this book as a go-to reference for working with my teams. I found so many practical strategies and useful techniques, as well as questions for self-reflection to build my own self-confidence and effectiveness as a coach. I highly recommend this book to project managers, agile practitioners, team leaders, business leaders, and anyone that wants to learn how to pull greatness from themselves and their teams. Maggie’s story is full of real-life situations with practical interventions to help resolve issues and grow the team. Each chapter provides strategies and questions for reflection that help make the concepts stick. Her sample implementation plan provides a roadmap of hope to help readers, “Be hopeful, be strong, be brave, be curious, and motivate!”



Pearce, R. (2018). Be a Project Motivator: Unlock the Secrets of Strengths-Based Project Management. San Francisco: Berrett Kohler.

Image Credits
Redwoods Photo by Mick Haupt on Unsplash

This article first appeared on Positive Psychology News. To see the original article, click here. To comment on this article, click here.

Adrienne Keane, MAPP '09, PMP, believes in the power of positive project teams. Combining the practices of traditional and agile project management with the science of positive psychology, she coaches individuals, leaders and teams to define and achieve strategic goals while maximizing teamwork and creating a positive workplace. Adrienne's articles can be found here.


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