To get biogas, farmers are creating their own, by using cow dung and building a bio-digester.
The end products are also a good source of fertilizer for crops. Making their own biogas saves hundreds of US$ per year in fuel costs for fuel that is used to run small water pumps.
A biogas digester plant relies on bacterial decomposition of biomass, waste material which is biological in origin, ranging from kitchen scraps to cow dung.
As anyone who has walked past a poorly maintained outhouse or compost pile is aware, when anaerobic conditions develop in a collection of biomass, they attract bacterial organisms which emit a number of distinctive gases.
These are most notably methane, which is produced in the process of digestion. These gases are usually viewed as a symptom of inefficiency and they are vented away for disposal, but they can actually be very useful.
Why is Cow Dung Often Used to Start Up Biogas Digesters?
Most biogas digesters use cow dung to produce biogas. There are many other organic materials as mentioned above that can be used to produce biogas. Like left over food scraps, vegetation etc.
For this reason, cow dung is commonly used to start the process of biogas production. You can change the organic material to be used to produce biogas after the production has been kicked off by cow dung.
How Much Biogas is Produced?
A one-cubic-meter digester, primed with cow dung to provide bacteria, can convert the waste generated by a four-person family into enough gas to cook all its meals and provide sludge for fertilizer.
A model this size costs about $425 but many testimonials suggest that such a facility will pay for itself in energy savings in less than two years.
Admittedly, that's still a high price for most Indians, even though the government recently agreed to subsidize about a third of the cost for these family-sized units.
For the equipment to produce gas, the digester is filled halfway with bio-degradable materials, like cow dung mixed with water in equal ratio. It is then refilled with smaller amount every day, or at intervals no longer than to 2 weeks. The equipment can start producing gas after seven days.
Gober gas (also spelled gobar gas, from the Urdu, Punjabi and Hindi word gober for cow dung) is biogas generated from cow dung.
A gober gas plant is an airtight circular pit made of concrete with a pipe connection. First, manure is dumped in the pit. Then, water or wastewater is added to the manure and the concoction is sealed in the airtight concrete pit with a gas pipe leading to stove unit in the kitchen serving as the only egress for gas. When the control valve on the gas pipe is opened the biogas is combusted for cooking in a largely odourless and smokeless manner.
The image above shows the fixed dome digester design often used for cow dung, chicken manure and human excreta.
Fixed Dome Digesters
Fixed dome plants were chosen because they can last for over fifty years and they are easily insulated and scum fosrmation is less due to the digester slurry that is displaced (pushed out) by incoming feed (influent).
A fixed dome digester is an underground biogas digester lined with brick, with a dome-shaped cover made from concrete. The cover is fixed and held in place with earth piled over the top to resist the pressure of the gas inside. A second pit, the slurry reservoir, is built above and to the side of the digester.
Final Size of the Biogas Plant
The size of the biogas plant is to be decided based on availability of raw material. It is generally said that, average cattle yield is about 10 kg dung per day. For eg. the average gas production from dung may be taken as 40 lit/kg. of fresh dung. The total dung required for production of 3 m3 biogas is 3/0.04= 75 kgs. Hence, a minimum of 4 cattle is required to generate the required quantity of cow dung.
A one-cubic-meter digester, primed with cow dung to provide bacteria, can convert the waste generated by a four-person family into enough gas to cook all its meals and provide sludge for fertilizer. A model this size costs about $425 but will pay for itself in energy savings in less than two years. That's still a high price for most Indians, even though the government recently agreed to subsidize about a third of the cost for these family-sized units.
The Anaerobic digestion market throughout the years has actually encountered varied applications throughout agriculture, metropolitan, and food & drink sectors.
Business owners and farmers across the region have in reality taken on these technologies to set up a foreseeable earnings stream and power resource with the purpose being to decrease dependence on mineral plant foods and fossil gas.
In addition, the food as well as drink market has actually welcomed the modern technology to refine its residue in an ecological acceptable manner and preventing landfill cost.
The European Union identifies the demand to support organisations to introduce.
EISENMANN is an instance of an effective German biogas tools making company. It is also well recognized as one of the leading global distributors of general ending up technology, product flow automation, environmental modern technology including Biogas in addition to ceramics and also thermal handling innovation.
Products of this company include blowers, exhausters, vacuum pumps and compressors looked for all sorts of gasses.
One good practice to study is the Green Gas Initiative in Europe. This is a joint commitment among the gas transmission system operators of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland to "green" the gas grid through biomethane integration. www.businesstimes.com.sg
Most of the current biogas production is currently located in Germany, which hosts 9,500 or so biogas plants, more than half the total number of installations currently in operation across the EU.
But the industry has big ambitions for the future, with France and Italy now seen as the new European leaders. A study commissioned by Gas for Climate, an industry consortium, claims production in Europe could skyrocket to 98 bcm of biomethane by 2050 – a 4,800% increase on current levels. via www.euractiv.com
Anaerobic Digestion Finance Mechanisms Pros and Cons
Keep watching and in under 5 minutes you will learn from this video 6 popular ways to arrange for your Anaerobic Digestion project finance, with the main advantages of each method and disadvantages.
The funding approaches we are about to describe, are not mutually exclusive.; a mixture of different approaches may be adopted.
Funding Instrument 1 - Private Equity Financing
This involves an investor who is willing to fund all or a portion of the project in return for a share of project ownership.
Private equity financing has the advantages of lower transaction costs and usually the ability to move ahead faster than with other financing approaches.
However, private equity financing can be more expensive.
Funding Instrument 2 - Project Finance
Project Finance is a popular method for financing private power projects in which lenders look to a project’s projected revenues, rather than the assets of the developer, to ensure repayment.
This approach allows developers to retain ownership control of the project while obtaining financing. Disadvantages of project finance are high transaction costs and a lender’s high minimum investment threshold.
Funding Instrument 3 - Municipal Bond Financing
Municipal Bond Financing is applicable for municipal projects such as municipally owned landfills and municipal end users. It may also be possible to use this bond type to fund landfill gas extraction and utilization projects.
This involves the local government issuing tax-preferred bonds to finance the Anaerobic Digestion, or LFG energy project. This approach (if available) is the most cost-effective way to finance a project because the interest rate is low and the terms can often be structured for long repayment periods.
However, municipalities can face barriers to issuing bonds, and therefore it may be better to look at:
Funding Instrument 4 - Direct Municipal Funding
Direct Municipal Funding, possibly the lowest-cost financing available other than Municipal Bonds, uses the operating budget of the city, county, landfill authority or other municipal government to fund the project.
This approach eliminates the need to obtain outside financing or project partners, and it avoids delays caused by the extensive project evaluations usually required by lenders or partners.
However, many municipalities may not have a budget that is sufficient to finance a project, or may have many projects competing for scarce resources.
Delays and complications may also arise if public approval is required.
Funding Instrument 5 - Lease Financing
Lease Financing provides a means for the project owner or operator to lease all or part of the energy project assets.
This arrangement usually allows the transfer of tax benefits or credits to an entity that can best make use of them.
Lease arrangements can allow for the user to purchase the assets or extend the lease when the term of the lease has been fulfilled.
The benefit of lease financing is that it frees up capital funds of the owner or operator but allowing them control of the project.
The disadvantages include complex accounting and liability issues and loss of tax benefits to the project owner or operator.
Finally, there may be the possibility of grant programs for some anaerobic digestion and renewable energy projects:
Funding Instrument 6 - Grant Programs
Grant Programs, offered by many federal and state programs may provide funding for LFG, biogas and anaerobic digestion energy projects.
Read our article at: https://anaerobic-digestion.com/anaerobic-digestion-finance
The news is just breaking that parliament is set to agree a UK General Election
on 12 December 2019. The new government must act as below, or fail to match the green pledges already made by the 2017 Conservative Government.
So, Labour, Conservative, or Liberal politicians you must match these green pledges or better them on sustainable renewable energy and the environment!
That's our challenge to the New Government. And, in view of the climate change imperative to act now, this is much more important than ever before!
ABDA issued the following PR on 23 October before parliament voted to suspend the Fixed Term Parliament Act today
(30 October 2019).
"ADBA’s vision is to see the full potential of the UK AD industry realised so it can help the UK achieve its emissions targets and other policy goals, creating a truly circular economy."Press Release:
Anaerobic digestion trade association submits proposals to Government ahead of the BudgetLetter to Chancellor highlights the industry's potential towards achieving the Government's Net Zero emissions target and the impact of uncertainty on the sector.
Priorities set out by ADBA include better cross-departmental working to ensure coordinated policy and support towards the implementation of separate food waste collections, a new funding system and dedicated Research & Innovation infrastructure for the industry.
|Charlotte Morton of ADBA|
UK AD industry has potential to reduce UK greenhouse gases emissions by 5%.
With the UK needing to show leadership on ultra low carbon technologies as President of the 2020 UN Framework Convention for Climate Change Conference of Parties (COP26), the Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association (ADBA) has written to Chancellor Sajid Javid ahead of the next Budget announcement, setting out the industry's views on the policies needed to stimulate growth of the anaerobic digestion (AD) sector and fulfil its potential to reduce some of the hardest-to-decarbonise emissions.
Currently, AD is predominantly recognised for its role in generating green energy.
But AD also prevents methane emissions from organic wastes left to break down in landfill – and there is a huge untapped potential for methane capture, use and conversion with millions of tonnes of organic wastes from farming, food and sewage currently not being treated through AD.
In addition, AD treatment of organics recovers nutrients to fertilise depleted soils and improve their ability to sequester carbon.
The Treasury has been tasked with coordinating government efforts to achieve Net Zero emissions by 2050. The AD has the potential to cut UK emissions by 5% across multiple sectors and therefore needs policy incentives applied across multiple Government departments (namely BEIS, Treasury, DEFRA, and Transport) to operate effectively. Good cross-departmental policy coordination is therefore essential to enable the industry to grow and achieve widespread emission abatement. This is a key ask from ADBA, which also lists the following priorities:
The Government must provide clear financial parameters to Local Authorities (LAs) to implement the mandatory separate food waste collections by 2023 stated in the Resources & Waste Strategy – which features a clear preference for inedible food waste to be recycled through AD.
It is vital that LAs are fully supported with set up costs that include funding the development of infrastructure to enable LAs to do so. Government must clarify its financial support as a matter of urgency, especially as around 70 LAs will be signing new waste contracts in the time period leading to the separate food waste collections implementation deadline.
The Budget must commit to an interim pot of funding for biomethane plant deployment similar to the Renewable Heat Incentive, which is due to come to an end in March 2021, while a future funding mechanism is developed (the Feed- In-Tariff has already closed, the lack of a floor price makes the Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation an unstable alternative to support biomethane plant deployment, Contracts-for-Difference support the larger AD plants whilst many in the sector are small, and the Smart Export Guarantee does not provide price certainty, or consider the wider, non-energy benefits of AD).
It is critical that the Budget commits additional support for AD for 2021 and beyond.
The Government must support AD innovation to make it financially autonomous. Enclosed in ADBA's letter to the Chancellor was the trade association's proposal for a virtual Centre for Anaerobic Biotechnology and Bioresources Research (CABB) to develop new waste management technologies, that would not only boost British exports, but also transform the sector’s performance and eliminate the need for subsidies in the future. CABB's objective is to transform AD into a low-cost, multifunctional biotechnology and a key ingredient in developing integrated processes to deliver future energy and resources provision.
ADBA's Chief Executive Charlotte Morton said:
"As a result of enjoying consistent policy and funding support, the wind and solar industries have become extremely cost-effective and are now established as part of the renewable energy mix. AD should be given the same fair treatment, to put the sector on the ‘glide path’ to no subsidy, as costs come down and innovation drives cost savings across the industry.
The UK AD sector has grown by over 350% over the last ten years and established itself as a world leader with UK companies exporting biogas-related expertise and equipment. However, the current timeline for the Greening the Gas Grid consultation is unlikely to provide the urgent continuity necessary to stimulate further industry growth.
The sector's progress has already effectively stalled due to the lack of policy certainty, and there is a real risk of losing expertise if there is an ongoing gap in policy provision. Meanwhile, with CABB, we could supercharge our industry and put it at the cutting edge of agricultural science.
We await the Budget next month with interest and are continuing our discussions with the Treasury and BEIS on our proposals in advance of its publication."
- ENDS -
Biofuels play a major part in the renewable energy strategy of Denmark.
Denmark is using biofuel to achieve its target of using 100% renewable energy for all energy uses by 2050. In this, biofuels provide a large share of he future energy sources in Denmark. Especially when considering all sectors of energy demand in conjunction with Denmark's highly developed renewable energy resources.
The main sources of biofuels in Denmark include:
- wood and wood products
- energy from waste straw
- biogas biodiesel and bioethanol.
Biofuels have the potential to provide environmental and economic benefits, but they must be carefully managed to ensure that they are truly sustainable resources.
There is the potential for economic and environmental damage if biofuels are not used responsibly. Biofuel use in Europe must be certified by the EU Commission before biofuels can be recorded as sustainable resources, and used for national renewable energy targets.
The oil shocks of the 1970s severely impacted Denmark as about 90% of its energy use then came from oil. The majority of that oil was imported. So, the government was thus compelled to rethink its energy portfolio.
It shifted the focus of its energy plans as a result biomass for bioenergy started being incentivized. Even way back then, it was promoted as a renewable energy source, and an alternative to fossil fuels. Denmark's aim was to reduce the oil dependency and to secure energy supplies.
That's an objective that has remained relevant in the progression of the country's energy policy to this day.
The prospect of the creation of new jobs in the utilization of waste products also factored into Denmark's decision to start using biomass, consequently the use of biomass in the Danish energy system has continuously grown.
In the last decade bio energy consumption in Denmark has nearly doubled, increasing by more than a factor of 12 between 1970 and present day.
Over this period biomass has been predominantly used in the form of waste straw and wood.
Currently Denmark is striving to create an energy system by 2050 that is free of all fossil energy. so, bioenergy will likely play a key role in order to achieve this goal.
In addition, Denmark has since 1993 been increasing its development of large-scale combined heat and power plants.
CHP plants combust biomass and do it in a way that has achieved continuous technological improvements. Many improvements have been achieved over the past 20 years.
The Danish strategy to reduce emissions has also included retrofitting older coal-fired plants to make them biomass-fired.
They are investing heavily into research development and demonstration (RD&D) for converting agricultural residues into second generation 2g bio ethanol.
Bio ethanol which is then blended with gasoline for the transportation sector.
RD&D activities are also in place for biodiesel for shipping and Road Transport in agreement with the European Environment Agency, scientific committee.
Denmark considers environmental sustainability as a key component of its strategy to incorporate a greater share of biofuels into its energy portfolio. As such, it does not consider biomass produced from existent forests as carbon neutral. But, it counts waste.
Biomass has doubled in output towards its renewable energy target, thus favoring biomass grown on marginal land or sourced from residues. This way the country is able to ensure that it benefits from incorporating a larger share of biomass into its energy system.
Biomass sourced from plantations that have been converted from natural forest land then generates a net carbon benefit over fossil fuels.
Denmark's guidelines for utilising biomass for energy and transportation strive to ensure both environmental sustainability and efficiency aspects as a member state of the European Union (EU). Denmark is working under commitments from its directives which set targets for the amount of renewable energy within the national profiles including biofuels.
It is following the EU legislation. For example its renewable energy use should reach 100% by 2020.
However, Denmark has been highly proactive and ambitious in the targets it has set for its renewable energy in greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Such as aiming for 100% renewable energy by 2050.
Source: Wikipedia article.
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