Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) use is growing for HGVs in the US and much of the credit for that can be attributed to a company known as “Clean Energy Fuels” (Clean Energy®). Largest provider of natural gas fuel for transportation in North ...
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"Anaerobic Digestion News" - 5 new articles

  1. Why US Truck Drivers Like Buying Natural Gas Clean Energy Fuels
  2. How Assisting Biomethane Could Cut 1/3 Off Hardest to Cut C02 Emissions
  3. Major Emissions Reductions by 2030 Pledged by WBA in Talks as their Climate Change Commitment
  4. UK AD and World Biogas Expo Gets A Global Rebrand to World Biogas Expo Status
  5. Anaerobic Digestion vs Landfill Which is Best
  6. More Recent Articles

Why US Truck Drivers Like Buying Natural Gas Clean Energy Fuels


Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) use is growing for HGVs in the US and much of the credit for that can be attributed to a company known as “Clean Energy Fuels” (Clean Energy®).

Largest provider of natural gas fuel for transportation in North America.
Clean Energy® is a company with a very clear mission. That mission is quite simply to change the way the world fuels its vehicles. Reducing pollution from the transportation industry is an important goal for our the US nation, and at Clean Energy they know just how realistic and attainable that goal is with natural gas fuel.

Quoting from their website:

“Moving forward in our thinking as well as in our vehicles means a safer, healthier planet for all of us. This change is happening. Natural gas is abundant and economically viable and is increasingly being adopted as transportation fuel by countries around the world.”

Clean Energy® Natural Gas is available at all Clean Energy public and private fueling stations throughout North America. Natural gas is naturally abundant across North America and is a cleaner, less expensive alternative to gasoline and diesel. Clean Energy Natural Gas is available in:
  • CNG (Compressed Natural Gas),
  • LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) and 
  • Redeem® renewable natural gas (RNG). 

Clean Energy
is currently selling Redeem at stations for the same price as conventional natural gas.
Renewable natural gas driver says RNG fueled HGV Trucks last longer.


Redeem® is described as the world’s first renewable fuel made entirely from organic waste for use in commercial vehicles. Redeem® is a biomethane fuel which is cost-efficient, and available in North America and up to 70% cleaner than gasoline and diesel, making it a smart choice for natural gas vehicle fleets including heavy-duty trucks.


Clean Energy® has seen what must surely be a golden opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of vehicle fuel use in a wonderfully pragmatic way. 

Conclusion


Thanks to the efforts of six progressive harbor trucking firms that are demonstrating with today’s near-zero emission natural gas trucks, that the US can slash transportation emissions immediately and cost effectively.

The result has been that:

Clean Energy is the largest provider of natural gas fuel for transportation in North America, fueling over 46,000 vehicles each day at over 530 fueling stations throughout the United States and Canada.
    

How Assisting Biomethane Could Cut 1/3 Off Hardest to Cut C02 Emissions

Wondering how to cut carbon emissions? New report says that assisting UK biomethane production could cut 1/3 off the carbon emission from the hardest to decarbonise sectors. Hopefully the UK, and other governments, are currently thinking hard on how to cut it!

The new report says that assisting biomethane production could cut just under 1/3 of the UK's 2030 carbon target if used in the toughest sectors.

Some people have been dismissing the use of anaerobic digestion recently, as having any role at all in reducing the global carbon emissions blamed for causing rising temperatures.

They point to the rapid introduction of wind energy, and solar, and allude to biogas as being high-cost.

They just don't get it...

At some level, possibly even subconsciously, they connect biogas with "waste" and smells that they find distasteful.

Politicians think of badly implemented government subsidies which have either been over generous and hence over subscribed, or frankly not been thought through properly in the first place.

That's unfair!

These attitudes need reconsidering.

It jeopardizes the ability to comply with net Zero 2030 targets toward 2025 Net Zero.

And, it is now urgent that they are, in this time of unheard of intensities of forest fires, drought and flooding.

The anaerobic digestion and biogas industry does not seek hand-outs. It seeks recognition for what it can do. Plus, a level playing field to further develop tried-and-tested technologies to save carbon emissions in the most difficult to decarbonise sectors (such as heavy goods transport, and heating homes and business via the gas grid) where:
  • few opportunities exist to reduce carbon emissions using currently available technologies
  • quite apart from the carbon reducing opportunity, the wholesale introduction of biomethane can also bring enormous additional benefits (e. g. in jobs, air quality improvement, and reducing other emissions such as polluting forms of nitrogen).
Biogas as biomethane is NOT promoted any longer as a competitor with wind and solar. No longer does the biogas industry seek to be promoted for electricity generation in competition with lower cost technologies (although many contest that they are cheaper overall).

It's how to cut carbon emissions with "The no regrets option for the hardest to decarbonise sectors".

Read on and find out where biogas (biomethane) has a unique role in the Press Release which follows:

ADBA Press Release (3 March 2020):

Biomethane could deliver 30% of the UK’s 2030 carbon budget in hardest to decarbonise sectors, provide green heat to 6.4 million homes and create 30,000 jobs by 2030, says report

  • With a supportive policy environment, anaerobic digestion (AD) technology could produce 8 billion m3 biomethane/year, enough to heat 6.4 million homes, by 2030.
  • This would deliver a 6% reduction in total UK greenhouse gases emissions, specifically within the hard-to-decarbonise sectors of heat, transport, waste management and agriculture, and 30% of the reduction needed by 2030 to meet our legally binding carbon budget.
  • The industry would directly create 30,000 green jobs and become a leading exporter of innovation, technology and professional expertise.
  • The report sets out the pathway to full deployment by 2030 and identifies policy asks to stimulate growth.
Artists impression of assisting biomethane to cut carbon emissions.
Alan Whitehead MP today hosted the launch of Biomethane: the pathway to 2030, a major report by the Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association (ADBA), which highlights the potential for biomethane to cut emissions in the hardest to decarbonise sectors of the UK economy such as heat, transport, waste management and agriculture, and achieve the country’s Net Zero target.
Fully deployed, the biomethane industry could deliver a 6% reduction in the UK's greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 - a third of the 5th Carbon Budget target - and provide heating for 6.4 million homes.  It would also create tens of thousands of jobs, boost energy and food production security, attract investment into the green economy and enhance Britain's competitiveness on the international sustainable technology market. vision of "How to cut carbon emissions with Anaerobic Digestion in 2030.

Unlocking this potential however requires a supportive policy environment and the report identifies the key policy asks that will enable the industry to flourish:
  • immediate support for biomethane production beyond 2021
  • extension of the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation beyond 2032
  • funding for innovation
  • establishment of resource hierarchies for all organic wastes with AD as the optimal recycling technology
  • development of a renewable biofertiliser obligation
  • support for local circular economy projects around food waste recycling through AD into heat and power generation
Charlotte Morton, ADBA Chief Executive, said:
"Our sector has seen periods of very strong growth in the last decade as a direct result of supportive policy, but this has stalled in recent years due to the withdrawal of support.  The next ten years, dubbed the climate decade, are our last chance to reverse the climate crisis. To reach its full potential by 2030 and make a real impact, the industry must grow faster than it has ever done.  We therefore need robust and immediate support from government to capitalize on the sector's wide-ranging environmental and social benefits, and to unlock a commercially viable, world-class AD industry with goods, services and expertise that can be exported around the world.  In the face of the climate emergency, AD is not an option, it's a necessity, and a technology that needs to be fully deployed NOW to create the healthy environment and healthy green economy that the UK needs."
The report has been sponsored by Air Liquide, Privilege Finance and SNG.

Industry Comments on How to Cut Carbon Emissions the ADBA Way

Chris Winward, Chief Commercial Officer at Privilege Finance, commented:
"Now is the time for us to ensure policy makers understand the potential for energy from waste technologies to contribute towards achieving net zero and the creation of a more circular economy. Sending waste to landfill that could be used for energy production needs to be seen as socially unacceptable. Existing anaerobic digestion technologies offer a solution to both the problem of producing materials that ultimately end up in landfill, and the need to decarbonise our energy system.”
An alternative vision of "cutting carbon emissions without Anaerobic Digestion in 2030! (As used on the ADBDA report cover.)[/caption]
John Morea, CEO of SNG, said:
“The injection of further biomethane into the gas network is key to decarbonise heating through the 2020s and involves no disruptive changes for customers. We hope this report will raise the profile of the potential for biomethane to deliver a third of the carbon savings necessary to meet the UK’s legally binding fifth carbon budget and allow for the necessary policies to be introduced from when the Renewable Heat Incentive ends in March 2021.”
David Smith, Chief Executive of Energy Networks Association, said:
“We welcome this report that clearly shows the benefits of biomethane and anaerobic digestion which must play a critical role in helping us get to net zero. They are good for the environment, good for the economy and good for the public who will benefit from a low carbon, low cost energy system. In the run-up to COP 26 this year, what we now need is a commitment to roll-out the world’s first zero-carbon gas grid.”
ADBA Press Release Ends

    

Major Emissions Reductions by 2030 Pledged by WBA in Talks as their Climate Change Commitment

The WBA is in Talks on their Climate Change Commitment to major emissions reductions by 2030. At last! We have been saving for more than 10 years that it's about time real plans were made to reduce the impact of global warming, and all the time carbon emissions have in fact been escalating year on year.
At last the WBA and the biogas industry are in talks to how vague promises can be translated in real action to make a difference.

We are pleased to publish below the WBA's latest Press Release which explains how this is happening:

World Biogas Association meets with UNFCCC in Bonn to discuss the industry's Biogas and Climate Change Commitment Declaration to deliver major emissions reductions by 2030

  • Declaration sets out ambition to reduce global greenhouse gases emissions by 12% by 2030
  • Meeting discusses how to gain world governments' commitment to unlock this potential
  • WBA representatives arrive on board a biomethane-powered car.
Bonn - 18 February 2020 - David Newman, President, and Charlotte Morton, Chief Executive of the World Biogas Association (WBA) , today met with H.E. Ovais Sarmad, Deputy Executive Secretary, UN Climate Change - the secretariat for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - to discuss the implementation of the Biogas and Climate Change Commitment Declaration that was presented to Mr Sarmad at COP25 in Madrid in December.


Signed by WBA and major biogas stakeholders from 11 countries, the Declaration sets out the ambition for the industry to deliver 12% reduction in global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 2030, subject to world governments' removing current barriers to growth and investing fully in the technology as part of their contribution to meeting their Paris Agreement commitment. The 12% potential equates to the total US GHG emissions in 2012 or that of the EU in 2017.

David and Charlotte arrived at the UNFCCC offices in Bonn on board a biomethane/Bio-CNG-powered Audi Q5, accompanied by Harmen Dekker of DMT Environmental Technology, a biogas solutions provider and member of the WBA Advisory Board, who supplied the car. They were greeted by Niclas Svenningsen, Manager, Global Climate Action, UN Climate Change, who had called for all Paris Agreement signatories to include biogas in their Nationally Determined Contributions at the World Biogas Summit last July, and who also joined the meeting.

WHO leaders beside a biomethane powered car at climate change reduction talks in Bonn.

David said: "We are greatly encouraged by the progress made since Niclas' speech at the Summit only 7 months ago. The global biogas industry is determined to play its part in addressing the climate emergency.

However, delivering on its huge potential requires the political will from all world nations to move away from fossil fuel subsidies and invest in this mature, readily available technology that can not only significantly mitigate the climate crisis, but also form a cornerstone of global sustainable development.

Research has shown that our industry can help meet nine of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals. Gaining the support of UNFCCC in raising awareness and securing commitment from world governments is a major milestone towards achieving our 12% GHG emissions reduction goal. 2020 has been declared the Year of Action and we must act, now."

Talking about the biomethane car that brought the delegation to Bonn, Harmen Dekker said: "This retrofitted Audi Q5 is a great example of the positive impact that the car manufacturing industry can immediately have in decarbonising transport. The technology to adapt diesel and petrol cars to biomethane/Bio CNG is available, and DMT has some very successful example projects done already.

The biogas sector is ready to generate the biomethane needed to power them. What is urgently required to deploy this technology fully is direct support from policy makers and investors for the best well-to-wheel solutions and for biomethane".

- PR ENDS -

    

UK AD and World Biogas Expo Gets A Global Rebrand to World Biogas Expo Status

UK AD and World Biogas Expo 2020 banner image.
In a move which shows the UK is going out to the whole world post Brexit, we announce that the UK AD and World Biogas Expo is going global with this year's event rebrand to "World Biogas Expo" Status.

ADBA and WBA Press Release:

Rebrand of the UK biogas tradeshow reflects the industry's global dimension growth

UK AD and World Biogas Expo becomes "the World Biogas Expo, hosted by ADBA and WBA"
Name change to reflect the UK’s hosting of the pivotal COP26 Summit, the essential role of AD in meeting Net Zero, and the beginning of the "Decade of Action" on climate change
UK opportunity to showcase its own commitment to biogas and engage with an international audience

For the last three years, the UK Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association (ADBA) has been working alongside the World Biogas Association (WBA) to organise the sector's largest annual tradeshow dedicated to anaerobic digestion and biogas - the UK AD and World Biogas Expo, taking place annually in Birmingham, UK, helping to showcase its huge potential.

In December, at the 2019 ADBA National Conference in London, the industry received critical support from Chris Stark, CEO of the UK Committee on Climate Change. "The role of AD and biogas in the next decade is pivotal, and without it, we won't reach our Net Zero goal by 2050" he said. "If we don't set a course for AD in the next 12 months, the next decade looks impossible and the next century looks ropy."

The period 2020-2030 has been named the Decade of Action by the UN, and the UK is intent on playing a critical role in making this happen in the year it hosts the COP26 Climate Change Meeting in Glasgow in November. A global effort is required to cap our emissions by 2030 - with each country delivering on its full decarbonisation capability - and the UK has to lead by example. Given the industry’s potential to reduce global emissions by over 12% using technology that exists today, the next 10 years need to be the ‘biogas decade’.

To reflect the huge global potential of this technology, and encourage its worldwide adoption, ADBA and WBA have decided to rename the annual tradeshow the "World Biogas Expo, hosted by ADBA and WBA" from the 2020 edition onwards. This aligns the event with the co-located World Biogas Summit, also hosted by ADBA and WBA.

Charlotte Morton, ADBA Chief Executive, explains: "The UK is already reducing its emissions through AD by 1% but has a further 5% still to come. By simply capturing and recycling all society’s organic wastes through AD worldwide, we can reduce global emissions by over 12% within a decade. We urgently need every country to deliver Nationally Determined Contributions which are ambitious enough to cap emissions within 10 years – something which cannot be achieved without AD. Given the significance of COP26 in November, and of AD’s role, we need to demonstrate the vital contribution biogas makes. This is therefore the year to raise the profile of our expo, demonstrating the UK’s commitment to making the most of biogas to achieve Net Zero, through on-farm AD, food waste collections, biomethane in heat and transport. "

David Newman, WBA President, added: "ADBA, as the UK trade association, has been particularly active in stimulating the growth of AD in Britain over the years. With the global industry growing steadily too, the World Biogas Expo will provide a platform for national associations and companies from around the world to connect with each other and coordinate efforts to deploy AD and biogas on a truly global scale. We must all work together to deliver on this as a matter of urgency. The change in the name of the tradeshow signals this renewed and welcome impetus to rally round key international players and to fulfil the UN's Decade of Action remit."

Registration for the World Biogas Expo 2020, hosted by ADBA and WBA, will open in mid-February.

- PR ENDS -

For further information, contact:

Jocelyne Bia, Senior Communications Consultant
email: jocelyne.bia@adbioresources.org; tel: +44 (0)7910 878510

The Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association (ADBA) is the trade association for the UK anaerobic digestion (AD) and biogas industry. ADBA’s vision is to see the full potential of the UK AD industry realised so it can help the UK achieve its emissions targets and other policy goals, creating a truly circular economy. www.adbioresources.org @adbioresources

Launched at COP22 in Marrakesh in 2016, the World Biogas Association is the global trade association for the biogas, landfill gas and anaerobic digestion (AD) sectors, and is dedicated to facilitating the adoption of biogas globally. It believes that the global adoption of biogas technologies is a multi-faceted opportunity to produce clean, renewable energy while resolving global issues related to development, public health and economic growth. www.worldbiogasassociation.org @wbatweets
    

Anaerobic Digestion vs Landfill Which is Best

Assessing the advantages of anaerobic digestion vs landfill as a means of disposing organic waste is an important step.

Businesses need to know for sure that if they move from landfill to anaerobic digestion as the means of disposal of their waste there are not known issues which may prove a risk to the reputation of their organisation.

Image illustrates an AD plant illustrating the article on Anaerobic digestion vs Landfill
Members of the public who spend a lot of their time each day separating their kitchen waste, putting it in a caddie and leaving their scraps out for their council's kerbside collection, also need to know that their efforts are worthwhile.

If you are one of those, read-on because we are about to answer your question! If not, and your motive for seeking this article out is other than mentioned above, keep reading as well! The answer is most likely, also here.

Anaerobic Digestion vs Landfill for Waste Disposal

The starting point for the comparison of Anaerobic Digestion vs Landfill is the assumption that an individual/ organisation has organic waste (biological waste or waste biomass) which needs to be disposed of responsibly. Many people simply wish to "get rid of" their waste as cheaply as possible, but by asking this question, it implies that the enquirer accepts that they have a social responsibility to use the best method.

In this article our assumption is that the "best" method of waste disposal (getting rubbish taken away and out of sight) also includes doing it in a sustainable way from the point of view of avoiding as far as possible:

  • causing a risk of environmental harm to the local environment, and
  • minimising carbon emissions in the light of climate change as witnessed by rising temperatures and extreme weather conditions (as occurred in 2019 and to a lesser extent in the preceding years).

Now, let's consider both anaerobic digestion and landfill as waste disposal methods separately.

Having clarified both as waste management techniques we will provide our comparison of these two very different methods, and give our opinion on which is "best".

First, it is necessary to understand the basics of the anaerobic digestion process:

What Happens to Waste During Anaerobic Digestion

Organic waste which can range from inedible food (food waste) to cow manure, out-of-specification food crops to chicken feathers, can all be suitable for disposal by fermentation in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The AD process is simply controlled "rotting" (decomposition) without air.

This incidentally also produces an energy output in the from of "biogas". The biogas is sold for profit, or used to make electricity which when not needed to power the plant, is also sold.

This provides a very important environmental benefit because biogas is a renewable energy source. In fact, a well-run AD facility can be a net-negative carbon emitter, putting back carbon into the soil each year where it will stay, and replacing fossil fuel use. In other words, anaerobic digestion can ultimately help reverse greenhouse gas emissions.

Disposal of the waste is also achieved during anaerobic digestion. Some of the waste mass (carbon and hydrogen (CH4) is converted to methane during the process. This is called "mass destruction" in the waste industry. What remains is converted to simpler substances after the cell walls of plant matter are ruptured.

These simpler (shorter chain molecules) are the building blocks of biology. Unsurprisingly, they can be used as a natural fertiliser (subject to human health safety controls) and soil improver.

In addition to liquid fertiliser, anaerobic digestion process output (digestate) occurs in the form of a solid phase. The digester output of solids comprises fibres, husks etc., and a small proportion of inert material, plus unwanted contaminants such as plastic materials.

Subject to compliance with regulatory removal of unwanted contaminants, and public health related regulatory compliance, the ultimate destination (disposal point) for anaerobic digestion residues is onto land for a beneficial use (e.g. a fertiliser). When this is coupled with an agricultural spreading plan to avoid build-up of certain chemicals, this form of disposal can continue for an indefinite period on the same land. Thus waste disposal via anaerobic digestion is classed as a long-term sustainable form of waste disposal.

Recycling takes place on two levels during anaerobic digestion. The production of biogas which recycles energy as the first level. The remaining liquid and fibre output (digestate) recycles the fertilising materials which new crops need to grow healthily.

What Happens to Waste When Placed in a Landfill

Tequask [CC BY-SA]
Modern landfills are designed to be lined and capped and to subject the environment to the minimum actual harm, and risk of harm through pollution of their surroundings, as possible.

Waste is usually pre-sorted for recyclable materials before it is dumped in a landfill and the organic content may be removed, but this is rare. In general, only the valuable materials in solid waste, such as metals (e.g. iron, copper, tin etc), paper, and glass are removed before tipping in a landfill.

Paradoxically, this practise also creates conditions in the waste where uncontrolled anaerobic digestion occurs, producing landfill gas (a biogas - but not so clean as AD plant biogas). The biogas can, and usually is collected and used. But the proportion of the biogas collected over the long lifetime in which an old landfill produces biogas, is seldom above 60%.

The nutrients that remain, far from being usable as a fertiliser contain many contaminants which for a well-controlled landfill may not be inherently toxic in themselves are at very high strengths. The high strength "leachate" results in a highly toxic effect should the ever be a leak.

Of course, there will be leaks to all landfill membrane containment systems. Nothing lasts forever, and even if the materials used to hold the leachate inside didn't deteriorate geological changes will occur. Through erosion, earthquakes, and other effects the earth's crust never stops being modified.

So, those are the fates of waste materials when subjected to the anaerobic digestion process, and for all rubbish 'disposed" to landfill.

A comparison of Anaerobic Digestion vs Landfill

The important differences between anaerobic digestion and landfill follow:

1. "Treatment" versus "Hiding Out of Sight"

Anaerobic digestion treats waste. It converts the waste into a form which can be used again. It is a form of recycling in which the original chemicals in plant matter (organic chemicals as well as mineral-based compounds) are decomposed and become available to provide for re-growth of a next generation of plants.

Landfill, while a form of slow anaerobic digestion does occur within them, is mostly a form of entombment. The trash is effectively hidden under a restored surface such as grassland or a park. Where it works well, our old possessions may well still be there for future archaeologists to dig-up in 2,000 or even 3,000 years time.

Where landfill doesn't work well, the linings will cease to contain the leachate, and the landfill gas will escape. The leachate will contaminate the subterranean water and render wells undrinkable for future generations. The gas will cause a risk of explosions as it escapes, and when it gets into the atmosphere continue to cause even further global warming than current predictions allow for.

2. The Need for Ever More Space for Landfills

The anaerobic digestion process needs no more space than the footprint of the tanks and equipment, plus short-term storage bays for the incoming waste. There is no additional land needed no matter how long the biogas facility will continue to operate.

Landfill constantly fills up huge void spaces. Land area is finite, and suitable land for landfilling only a small proportion of all available land. As cities become larger and are intensively developed waste has to be transported ever further out to where new landfill space can be created. Costs rise while this is possible, but in some countries they are already unable to find suitable land for new landfills.

3. The Need for Ever More Resources to Replace Materials Placed in Landfills

Anaerobic digestion is a mainly resource neutral process, and is based upon recycling the same mineral and organic resources time and again with no end-point.

The consequence of landfilling is the need to constantly replenish the materials placed in them, with new materials constantly to be won from the ground quarries multiply. But mineral resources are finite. They become progressively harder to find, and need more energy to extract the lower grade minerals.

Just as far the landfills themselves the available land will inevitably run out.

Anaerobic Digestion vs Landfill - The Verdict

Anaerobic digestion technology is not yet fully developed and far from perfect as a recycling method. It is in general more expensive than the average cost globally of landfilling, especially if landfill taxation is allowed for. There are limitations on for how long individual fields can be fertilised from digestate in any period of time, before it is necessary to move on. Care is needed to prevent air pollution during spreading, and there are health risks if basic safeguards are not applied.

Nevertheless, in the long-term the anaerobic digestion method is one which shows no reason why it should not be applied for thousands of years. It needs no energy to fuel it as it is easily capable of providing its own power and much more besides. Environmental damage from anaerobic digestion is limited to such errors as digester tank leakage, or an explosion of the stored methane. Such damage can be severe at the time and costly. However, costs for AD plant repair would generally be in the range $100k to $2million.

In comparison, landfill cannot be sustained for long, and in some of the largest and oldest urban nations it is already not a viable option for reasons already described, such as space and land availability. It requires a lot of fuel to develop and fill landfills, much of the biogas if used only pays back on the embedded carbon emissions from its construction. What landfilling has been completed also provides a future threat to the local environment which can be very costly for future generations. Clean up costs for landfills range from $500k to $billions, as has occurred already in the United States (Clean-Up Superfund).

Therefore, on the grounds of sustainability and risk of future environmental damage anaerobic digestion is best.

On the grounds of reputation risk to businesses deciding to change their organic (biological) waste disposal from landfill to an AD plant, each will make their own decisions. Individual biogas plants will inevitably fail, but in principal the risk of that is offset by awarding the contract to a well-established and well-run biogas organisation.
    

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