The most obvious sanitary benefit of installing an anaerobic digester system
is the improvements to toilet facilities in the households
. Throughout China and other developing countries, where no sewer system is in place, toilet facilities are in simple shacks.
The toilet is generally a slot in the floor with either a pit underneath or alternatively a trough running to a storage pit behind the building.
In the case of a pit toilet, the slurry in the pit is often literally moving with insect larvae, and in all cases the toilets are smelly and fly infested. For these reasons, toilets are generally located as far away from the other household buildings as practical.
Watch our video below for a contrasting example of what one biogas plant supplier has achieved in sanitary improvement, using a biogas digester:
Biogas Digester Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to compare the environmental impacts of different products throughout their entire life cycle (European Commission, 2010).
The LCA has been used to compare different biogas production technologies (Rehl and Muller, 2011; Poeschl et al., 2012a). Several studies have also focused on technologies for biogas production from manure and different co-substrates for manure (Hamelin et al., 2011; Rehl and Muller, 2011; De Vries et al., 2012; Poeschl et al., 2012a).
However, very few studies have focused on the vast number of small-scale biogas digesters being deployed in developing countries. Only one single study has been identified (Chen et al., 2012) and this study largely ignores the issues of CH4 leakage and release and nutrient recycling.
With the current UK calculating being done on the LCA impact of biogas production, it will soon become be easier to make comparisons with other fuels.
SimGas Biogas Systems
SimGas biogas systems are fully integrated farm solutions designed to reach millions of rural households in developing countries. Our systems enable rural households with livestock to use the manure from their livestock to generate clean fuel for cooking and organic fertiliser.
Digesters are arguably even better, though, when they're in poor or developing countries. According to the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, small-scale anaerobic digesters like the one Porter and Mazur want to build on Everest are commonly used in rural communities to meet heating and cooking needs. China, for example, has an estimated 8 million anaerobic digesters. Nepal - where the one in question would be built - already has 50,000.
Toilet Facilities in the Households with Biogas Plants
The most obvious sanitary benefit of installing an anaerobic digester system is the improvements to toilet facilities in the households. Throughout China and other developing countries, where no sewer system is in place, toilet facilities are in simple shacks. The toilet is generally a slot in the floor with either a pit underneath or alternatively a trough running to a storage pit behind the building. In the case of a pit toilet, the slurry in the pit is often literally moving with insect larvae, and in all cases the toilets are smelly and fly infested. For these reasons, toilets are generally located as far away from the other household buildings as practical.
Reasons to Try Aquaponics
The world today uses epic amounts of non-renewable resources. as we grow old, our backs tend to give senior citizens trouble. Gardening is hard on the back. Aquaponic systems can be designed to ensure you never have to bend over to plant or harvest. lower cholesterol.
Many organizations and countries around the world are seeking to find new sustainable ways to produce food due to the world food crisis. Hydroponic and aquaponic systems have plenty of benefits for developing countries and make use of he output from digestion, known as digestate.
Unfortunately, the digested may still contain some diseases, especially when the digestate has been output after the source has been recognized as including some animal by-products.
The control of pests and diseases of plants grown in aquaponic systems is a problem since pesticide use is clearly limited by the high sensitivity of water pollution which may be caused by it.
In general, published data indicate that a digestion time of 14 days at 35 C is effective in killing (99.9 per cent die-off rate) the enteric bacterial pathogens and the enteric group of viruses. However, the die-off rate for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and hookworm (Ancylostoma) is only 90 per cent, which is still high. In this context, biogas production would provide a public health benefit beyond that of any other treatment in managing the rural health environment of developing countries.
Energy Shortages in Developed Countries
Energy shortages in developed countries turned out to have an impact on developing countries such as Indonesia (Simamora, 2006). The declining of the reserve natural energy and the increasing of human needs for living force them to always make effort and innovate to solve their problem.
A Substitute for Fossil Fuel Based Household Energy
Any effort for a renewable substitute for fossil fuel based household energy is by developing biogas that have raw material from cattle manure. The biggest parts of Indonesia are rural area which have source income in form of integrated agriculture product, one of them is cattle, so the developing of Biogas is really potential. So far, Productivity and Socialization of Biogas energy in the countryside have not conferred maximal product outcomes.
Many developing countries, such as Colombia, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Vietnam, Cambodia, have promoted the low-cost biodigester technology
aiming at reducing the production cost by using local materials and simplifying installation and operation (Botero and Preston 1987; Solarte 1995; Chater 1986; Sarwatt et al 1995; Soeurn 1994; Khan 1996).
The model used was a continuous-flow flexible tube biodigester based on the "red mud PVC" (Taiwan) bag design as described by Pound et al (1981) and later simplified by Preston and co-workers first in Ethiopia (Preston unpubl.), Colombia (Botero and Preston 1987) and later in Vietnam (Bui Xuan An et al 1994).
More than 7000 polyethylene biodigesters have been installed in Vietnam, mainly paid for by farmers (Bui Xuan An and Preston 1995).
Developing countries have struggled to supply stable forms of energy to many of their inhabitants.
According to the World Energy Outlook, approximately 80 percent of people without electricity live in rural areas in Sub-Saharan Africa and developing Asia.
With no other alternative for energy, many people already rely on biogas and struggle to efficiently transport and store it. The technology is therefore in a good position to be developed and extended.
Introduction to Biogas Plants and Production in India
While technically biogas in India can be produced from any kind of natural product, the majority of times, biogas is produced from natural waste.
This waste might make up farming and crop waste, human waste and animal waste (cow dung for example). With a calorific worth of about 5000 KCal/ m3, biogas is an exceptional fuel for heating functions along with for producing electrical power.
Biogas production has actually been quite dominant in India at home and community levels (especially in rural backwoods) than on big scales.
In towns especially, lots of little biogas crops utilize the livestock waste (especially cow dung) and offer biogas utilized for house heating and cooking. It is approximated that over 2 million such biogas plants have actually been put into use, all through India.
When organic matters like cow dung, agricultural wastes, human excreta etc. subjected to bacterial decomposition in presence of water in absence of air, a mixture of CH4, C02, H2, H2S etc. is produced. These gases together is known as biogas. The residue left after the removal of biogas is a good source of manure and biogas is used as a good source of non-polluting fuel.
A one-cubic-meter digester, primed with cow dung to provide bacteria, can convert the waste generated by a four-person family into enough gas to cook all its meals and provide sludge for fertilizer.
A model this size costs about $425 but will pay for itself in energy savings in less than two years. That's still a high price for most Indians, even though the government recently agreed to subsidize about a third of the cost for these family-sized units.
If a biogas plant is taken care off well, it can be used for up to 25 years.
" Dr Aggarwal set up the plant at his home 4-5 years back. Describing how it functions, he shares, "Everyday, 10 kg cow dung, along with 15 litres of water, is put in the mixing tank.
"The cow dung is brought from the cowsheds from nearby areas, where the owners want to dispose it anyway. This mixture is fermented inside the fermentation tank by the anaerobic bacteria. The mixture is then converted into slurry through which methane gas and carbon dioxide gas are released,"
he shares. via dnaindia.com
The bio-gas is obtained from plant, animal and human waste, is also called as gobar gas in India. The main source of biogas is wet cow dung.
The other sources of biogas are: sewage, crop residue, vegetable wastes, waste wood, dry leaves of the plants, broken branches of trees, garbage, waste paper, poultry droppings, pig manures, algae, ocean kelp etc.
These plants are commonly known as Gobar gas plants because the usual raw material is cow dung (Gobar). The methodology involves in the process is to prepare a slurry of cow dung with water. Water is also be added to the slurry.
Biogas in India - ConclusionHome biogas plants produce biogas from cow dung and certain organic household waste. This allows families to cook without any worries. There is no smoke any more, and the tedious chore of collecting wood is also dispensed with. Many women and children were busy collecting firewood one day a week; now they have more time to work and play.
The systems used in the production of biogas today are not efficient. There are no new technologies yet to simplify the process and make it abundant and low cost.
This means large scale production to satisfy a large population is still not possible. Although the biogas plants available today are able to meet some energy needs, most individuals and governments are not willing to heavily invest in the sector. This aspect has led many people to put up biomass systems in their homes, which are short on capacity.
The Pdf version available of our main biogas article (not this one) is at: anaerobic-digestion.com
First, watch our video to find out the 5 advantages government ministers ignored:
ADBA PRESS STATEMENT,
Posted on 20 Jul, 2018:
Anaerobic digestion industry response to Feed-In Tariff consultation
Responding to the government's new Feed-In Tariff (FIT) consultation, Charlotte Morton, Chief Executive of the Anaerobic Digestion & Bioresources Association (ADBA), said:
With the Feed-In Tariff (FIT) confirmed to close in just nine months’ time, this was an opportunity for the government to prove that it is committed to providing the investment that is absolutely critical to supporting small-scale renewables, which make a vital contribution to decarbonising and meeting increased demand for electricity in the UK.
Unfortunately, this is an opportunity that has been well and truly missed. As well as providing renewable baseload power, anaerobic digestion (AD) combined heat and power (CHP) under the FIT has been vital in helping to decarbonise the farming sector.
With the government no longer providing direct for support for the generation of renewable electricity, on-farm AD will struggle to deliver its numerous non-energy benefits, which include reducing emissions from wastes, improving air quality and resource management, and restoring soils through the production of nutrient-rich biofertiliser.
This also puts at severe risk the more than 300 AD CHP plants currently in the planning pipeline. It’s therefore vital that the government rethinks its baffling decision to have no new low-carbon electricity levies until 2025, which risks creating a valley of death that small-scale technologies such as AD could easily fall into.So, how did we arrive at this point?
UK FiT (Feed-in-Tariff) Fade-Out Starts on 31 March 2019
The story so far on the UK government closure of the Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) which was introduced in the 2000s to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technology in the UK.
31 March 2019, marks the date after which no more new schemes will be considered for the subsidy.
Existing schemes will be honoured.
They will still be paid-out-on over the original individual durations of scheme agreements.
Nobody would seek to suggest that overall the FiT has not been successful, given that the UK is currently not only complying with its targets for renewable energy, but exceeding them.
However, many in the UK biogas industry would argue that the FiT or a replacement scheme for biogas, should have been introduced.
This is given the youthfulness of the technology (younger in development than wind and solar technologies), and the additional benefits of anaerobic digestion, which are unique.
These are benefits which will assist the government to comply with targets for climate change abatement, air quality, and agricultural emissions for example.
In the following excerpts we have endeavored to tell the story of the FiT wind-down which was started by the UK government started in the summer of 2018.
UK's Feed In Tariff fade out confirmedJuly 24, 2018: The UK’s Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy has set out a proposal to close the country’s Feed-In-Tariffs (FITs) scheme.
In the proposal, the scheme would be closed to new applications after 31 March 2019
. Feed-In-Tariffs are the UK government’s subsidy scheme for generation of renewable electricity from small-scale low-carbon installations. Both anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (CHP) agricultural installations have been greatly supported by the Scheme.
The government is hosting a consultation until 13 September 2019 on the proposed changes. An impact assessment has been released to accompany the consultation.
According to the consultation, the FIT scheme was introduced to support the widespread adoption of small scale (up to 5MW) low-carbon electricity generating technologies, intending to give the wider public a stake in the transition to a low-carbon economy.
Original 2010 deployment projections, ‘both in terms of numbers of installations and installed capacity’, have been exceeded, the government reporting over 800,000 installations confirmed on the Central FIT Register as of March 2018. via Bioenergy Insight
Meanwhile other Nations have been Introducing Feed-in-Tariffs, and even increasing them, as in the following examples:
New Irish Feed-in Tariff Promotes Biogas Potential
In the course of 2017, Ireland intends to initiate the energy reform with a new feed-in tariff for renewable energies. The government plans to increase the amount of green electricity from the current figure of about 23 percent to 40 percent by 2020.
|Watch on YouTube here.|
The tariff system is to establish a favourable environment for biogas plant operation. In view of the extensive agricultural and waste resource potential available in Ireland, WELTEC BIOPOWER UK will showcase its AD plant technologies at the Energy Now Expo Ireland, which will be held in the end of October in The Hub in Kilkenny.
In early September, the Irish Department of Communications, Climate Action & Environment (DCCAE) announced the adoption of a new subsidy regime to promote renewable energies, to be known as the Renewable Energy Support Scheme (RESS).
So far, Ireland has been the only European country without an incentive scheme for heat from renewable sources.
However, the green island has to meet EU requirements by 2020. This means that 16 percent of Ireland‘s total energy needs for power, heat and traffic must be provided from renewable energies. This is to be achieved by making use of all green energy sources available in the country. Biogas is to play a key role especially in meeting the individual goals for the heat and transport sector. via Ireland Promotes Biogas
France increases biogas tariffsJuly 31, 2015:
France is set to increase its feed-in tariffs for biogas installations and small photovoltaic (PV) systems, says the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy.
The feed-in tariff for electricity produced by cogeneration installations running on biogas will be raised for both new and existing installations.
On a project basis, depending on individual size and feedstock used, the increase will be between 10 and 20%.
A 300 kW anaerobic digestion unit that uses cow manure from approximately 200 cows, for example, will increase its annual income by between €40,000 and €50,000.
France recently also adopted a law to set an ambitious target of sourcing 32% of its energy demand from renewable sources by 2030. via BioenergyInsightMagaz
Feed-in tariffs in Australia - Solar Only
Feed-in tariffs in Australia are the feed-in tariffs (FITs) paid under various State schemes to non-commercial producers of electricity generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) systems using solar panels.
They are a way of subsidising and encouraging uptake of renewable energy and in Australia have been enacted at the State level, in conjunction with a federal mandatory renewable energy target.
Australian FIT schemes tend to focus on providing support to solar PV particularly in the residential context, and project limits on installed capacity (such as 10 kW in NSW) mean effectively that FITs do not support large scale projects such as wind farms or solar thermal power stations. via Wikipedia
FiT in Japan
Since its enforcement in 2012, purchase prices of FiT have been re-examined every year. As a result, that for solar PV has been lowered and some new categories have been created for wind, hydro and biomass.
On April 2017, the FIT scheme was partially amended. This amendment introduces a new approval system for renewable power generation projects that require grid connection agreement with the utility beforehand. via Solar PV auction
No FiT Schemes Exist in the US - Only Renewable Portfolio Standards
A state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) encourages or requires utilities to use or buy renewable energy or renewable energy certificates (RECs) to account for a certain portion of their retail electricity sales by a certain date. A REC is a tradable certificate documenting that 1 megawatt-hour of renewable electricity was generated at a specific facility. The goal of an RPS is to stimulate market and technology development so that renewable energy can become more competitive with conventional forms of electric power. A state RPS helps create market demand for renewable energy.
Generally, electricity suppliers can meet the RPS targets by:
Owning a renewable energy facility and its output generation.
Purchasing electricity from a renewable facility.
Biogas from anaerobic digesters often qualifies as renewable energy under the biomass category of state RPS systems. via AgSTAR
Read our 5 Anaerobic Digestion Advantages article here
View the above video on YouTube here.
Attribution of Images in Video:
This video presentation (top of page) contains images that were used under a Creative Commons License. Click here to see the full list of images
Fugitive Emissions of Methane
Fugitive Emissions of Methane (Biogas and Landfill Gas) Explained
It is well known that unintentional escapes of methane and landfill gas (fugitive emissions) occur when methane escapes from a myriad of tiny leaks from production facilities, wells, pipes, compressors and other equipment.
Methane continually escapes through tiny leaks from the equipment associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction, landfills, landfill gas utilization plants, and biogas plants.
It is obviously very important to reduce all these fugitive methane emissions to an absolute minimum.
Methane is more than 80 times more damaging to the atmosphere and more powerful than carbon dioxide over a 20-year time frame.
It's the second leading contributor to climate change, after carbon dioxide.
Methane accounts for approximately 25 % of the world’s climate warming.
Accidentally released methane emissions are the inevitable byproduct of the oil and gas industry and agriculture, and occur from all methane equipment.
But, not only from equipment it also gets released when cattle blow-off!
Vegans are right when they say reducing demand for dairy and meat will help the environment.
80 % of the Geenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions due to enteric fermentation (digestion in stomachs) are from the digestive systems of cattle.
But, that's enough about cattle emissions, what about biogas plants which imitate cattle to make methane.
Unintentional emissions will be occurring from all biogas plants.
Storage tanks inevitably leak a small amount, as do pipe joints, valves and other equipment.
Other fugitive emissions will occur when digesters are opened-up for maintenance, and during commissioning.
However, biogas plant and landfill gas utilization plants would be expected to be similar to those for the natural gas supply industry.
Fugitive emission research conducted within the natural gas industry estimates the US national methane fugitive emissions rate for natural gas at about 0.42%.
A not insignificant amount overall, and it needs to be reduced.
However, the amounts are tiny when compared with the fugitive emission of methane from cattle, and landfills.
Municipal solid waste landfills are the third-largest source of human-related methane emissions in the United States, accounting for approximately 15% of these emissions in 2016.
Similar figures apply to all developed nations.
But, as Vegans can point out.
This is well below the 26% emitted from cattle through enteric fermentaton.
Thanks for watching right through!
Sources of all quoted statistics are in our article here:
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Dead Fish to Power Cruise Ships
Waste fish parts will be used to power ships in a new initiative to use green energy for polluting cruise liners.
The leftovers of fish processed for food and mixed with other organic waste will be used to generate biogas, which will then be liquefied and used in place of fossil fuels by the expedition cruise line Hurtigruten.
Heavy fossil fuels used by ocean-going transport are an increasing problem as they are even more polluting than fuels for land-based vehicles, emitting sulphur and other contaminants.
The fuels contribute to air pollution as well as to climate change.
Converting vessels to use biogas will cut down on pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Hurtigruten operates a fleet of 17 ships and by 2021 aims to have converted at least six of its vessels to use compressed biogas, which is a renewable form of liquefied natural gas (LNG).
Biogas can be generated from most forms of organic waste by speeding up and harnessing the natural decomposition process to capture the methane produced.
Read the full article in the Guardian online
Go to https://anaerobic-digestion.com/ships
Shipping Industry in General Looks Set to Continue to Use Fossil (Bunker) Fuels
The shipping industry is being forced to convert to cleaner burning fuels, however, or install scrubbers.
The European Union and China already have regulations in place that place caps on sulphur emissions for ships making port calls in Europe and China.
And starting in 2020, the International Maritime (IMO) will require all vessels operating in international waters to meet new emissions caps, which will mean they will either need to switch to lower burning fuels, like methanol, LNG or diesel, or install scrubbers.
Many are opting to install scrubbers and continue using bunker fuels, simply because bunker fuel is widely available at ports around the world. Other fuel sources, like LNG, aren't.
Ulrich said the continued use of bunker fuel and scrubbers simply moves pollution from the air to the water. Open-loop saltwater scrubbers remove pollutants from smokestacks, but she said some ships have been found to be releasing the pollution sludge that is captured into the ocean. via biv.com
Passengers on Cruise Ships Could be Inhaling Harmful Concentrations of Funnel Air Pollutants
Passengers on a cruise ship could be inhaling "60 times higher concentrations of harmful air pollutants " than they would in natural air settings, Naturschutzbund Deutschland (NABU), a German environmental association, has warned.
Measurements were taken at various spots on the ship and for this particular sample, the sun deck and jogging lane on the top deck were found to be most affected by pollution. "But of course this can vary along with the wind and weather conditions. So potentially every part of the ship can be affected significantly," Mr Rieger said.
For this reason, the German Lung Association and the Pneumologists Association have warned passengers against staying on deck or inhaling ships' exhaust gases as this could cause acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) if you suffer from lung diseases, Mr Rieger said. via www.telegraph.co.uk
Air Pollution from Nautical Behemoths
But while the 6,780 passengers and 2,100 crew on the largest cruise ship in the world wave goodbye to England, many people left behind in Southampton say they will be glad to see it go. They complain that air pollution from such nautical behemoths is getting worse every year as cruising becomes the fastest growing sector of the mass tourism industry and as ships get bigger and bigger. via www.theguardian.com
When the gargantuan Harmony of the Seas slips out of Southampton docks commercial voyages, the 16-deck-high floating city will switch off its auxiliary engines, fire up its three giant diesels and head to the open sea.
"These ships burn as much fuel as whole towns," Bill Hemmings, the director of aviation and shipping at Transport & Environment, told the Guardian earlier this year. "They use a lot more power than container ships and even when they burn low sulphur fuel, it’s 100 times worse than road diesel." via psmag.com
Cruise ships have been described as "floating cities" and like cities, they have a lot of pollution problems. Their per capita pollution is actually worse than a city of the same population, due to weak pollution control laws, lax enforcement, and the difficulty of detecting illegal discharges at sea. Cruise ships impact coastal waters in several US states, including Alaska, California, Florida, and Hawaii. via www.beachapedia.org
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